A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or …

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The argumentum ad populum2 Fallacy,also known as the Appeal to Popularity,is an informal fallacy which occurs when a person or group claims that an event, idea, opinion, practice, or policy is more likely to occur because people find it more convenient, more acceptable, more economical, or more in accord with their cultural customs than would occur if the same actions were taken in a different situation or with a different set of circumstances. The fallacy is typically presented in such a way that it appears to be a logical argument or logical demonstration. Argumentum ad Populum edit The fallacy of Argumentum ad Populum5, also known as the Appeal to Popularity or the Appeal to Fear, is an informal fallacy common to those who are ignorant of the topic under discussion. It occurs when one makes a claim about an event or group that could conceivably occur, based on their own personal or cultural values, prejudices or fears. The fallacy appears when the speaker believes that they are making a valid argument for a certain event or group, because they have made a personal or cultural value judgement about it. Therefore, in order to justify their position they must use the argumentum ad populum fallacy. They usually justify their judgement by stating that since they personally value this event or group, they must then believe, or at least strongly believe, the claim being made by that entity. However, in cases where the speaker uses their own personal or cultural values as a basis to justify or support their argument, they are guilty of Appeal to Popularity. Appeal to Authority edit The fallacy of Appeal to Authority 6, is an informal fallacy common to those who are ignorant of the topic under discussion. It occurs when one makes an argument without a logical basis. The fallacy appears when the speaker uses a supposed authority figure, for example, a teacher, a doctor, an authority figure, a politician, or a clergyman, for an alleged fact claimed. This supposed authority figure must be believed because the speaker believes that the speaker must be correct. Usually the speaker believes that what the speaker says must be correct. However, the speakers belief that the speaker must be correct, does not in itself constitute an argument. Appeal to Ignorance edit The fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance 7, also known as the Appeal to the Passions or Appeal to a Minor Issue; is a non-argument. It occurs when one argues based on a person, belief, or feeling that is not based on any sort of argument. The fallacy occurs when the speaker believes, or claims, that because they believe X they must therefore be right because they believe X.

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